1. The Government
of India's National Policy on Education, 1986 (modified in the year 1992)
is a forthright statement on Education as an empowering agent. The country
has reached a stage in its economic and technical development where a major
effort must be made to derive maximum benefit from the assets already created
and to ensure that the fruits of development reach all sections . The NPE,
thus, rightly identified for focussed attention and intervention, a number
of thrust areas which inter-alia included education for equality at all stages
of education, open learning systems, promoting efficiency and effectiveness
at all levels and making the system work through effective management of education.
2. The Central
Government while making certain modifications in NPE (1986 ) in 1992 took
a significant decision to direct the State Governments to have their own State
Programme of Action for implementing the thrust areas of the policy in view
of local conditions keeping the spirit of NPE intact. The State of Haryana
also devised its own State POA in 1994. The NPE further provided for a periodic
review of the thrust areas in consonance with the dynamics of education related
needs and aspirations of the populace. Hence the need now to identify new
areas of action & take suitable policy initiatives.
3.At the threshold of the new millennium,
the Government of Haryana has sought to address the challenges thrown up by
the changing environment and the problems being faced by the state in terms
of key HRD indicators by bringing Education at the central stage of its development
4. At this stage
of development, the education agenda of the state requires re-negotiation
from quantity to quality, from mere transfer of information to enhancement
of creativity & knowledge and development of relevant skills, from a centralized
to a decentralized system of educational administration and from bureaucratic
management to a participative decision making process. The overall objective
is to make education relevant to the emerging environment by way of encouraging
socially & economically productive skills.
which was carved out of the erstwhile Punjab in 1966, had come into existence
as a deprived and underdeveloped state. The efforts of the people of the State
and the Govt have led to a stage, where Haryana has the distinction of having
the third highest per capita income. Haryana has made commendable progress
in many areas on the economic front, like providing electricity, metalled
roads and potable water to all the villages besides giving thrust to industries
alongwith technical and material inputs in agriculture. The life expectancy
and per capita income of the state have risen considerably. During the same
period the literacy rate has risen to 55.85% as compared to the national average
of 52.21% (1991 census). This has to be viewed in the context of the fact
that in 1966 at the time of reorganisation the State's literacy rate (19.92%,
Census 1961) was lower than the national average ( 27.76%, Census 1961).
6. Despite the
major strides made by Haryana, the State ranks among the lowest in the country
in many of the HRD indicators. For instance, the birth rate in the State remains
higher than the national average and far above the replacement level. During
1981-91 the sex ratio between males and females has gone down from 878 to
865 and is the lowest in the country. Although, the enrolment of girls has
improved since the inception of the state, yet it remains low. The drop-out
rate among girls in the elementary stage is high and the percentage of girls
going for education at the secondary and college stage is low.
7. At the time
of initial thrust for universalisation of elementary education, there was
voluntary community participation. Most of the schools in the rural areas
were made by the panchayats or the communities and the land for the schools
was given free of cost by the panchayats. The efforts of the State at universalisation
of elementary education increased the coverage extensively, yet, it led to
a system of centralization at the cost of community participation. Today the
community and the panchayats stand alienated from the monolithic educational
infrastructure that has evolved in the State.
8. Although it
is a matter of great satisfaction that enrolment of children has crossed the
90% mark (private schools enrolment included), and accessibility of schools
has improved considerably, yet, many of the disadvantaged and weaker sections
and physically and mentally challenged groups have largely remained outside
the ambit of elementary education. In order to achieve universalisation of
elementary education, the needs of these special groups will have to be addressed.
Any further progress in increasing the percentage of enrolment would necessarily
demand that education is made accessible to these sections by making it more
relevant and flexible as per their requirements.
the child's fundamental right to education, serious thought would also need
to be given to the question of making appropriate provisions in the Constitution
so that full benefits of the UEE are derived by the 6-14 years age group.
Although the percentage of girls getting enrolled in the schools has gone
up in the last three decades, yet the drop-out rate among them remains high.
The number of girls going for higher or professional education is still very
small. Special efforts need to be made to increase the access of higher education
for this section.
After having reached a satisfactory degree of universalisation of elementary
education, the State is now concerned about the quality of education. Whereas
the content of what is taught is important, equally important is the efficacy
of the delivery system and the teaching technologies. Effective management
of education to ensure optimum returns is therefore an area to be urgently
Any further progress, even on the economic front, will only be possible by
increased expenditure on education. Examples from other developing countries
have shown that the growth of the economy is directly related to the educational